Some people have considered sailing with just a genoa and many have done it without trouble. However, sailing with just the genoa can take some extra knowledge about your craft as well as the genoa itself. You will also need to know about the positions, angles, trimming, and sheet
Sailing with just the genoa has been done by many sailors without worry. In fact, sailing with just the genoa is preferred in some instances. The genoa has no mast in front of it to interrupt the flow and it has continuous lift created by the bend in the sail from the upwash.
Familiarize Yourself with the Features of the Genoa
Before you think about sailing with just the genoa, you want to make sure you fully understand what a genoa is and what it does. A genoa, sometimes called a headsail, is a type of large staysail or jib that overlays the mainsail when you view it from the side. Some of the main features of the genoa include:
- Shape: This describes the perimeter dimensions or mold shape.
- Size: Refers to the foot, leech, and luff lengths as well as the roach profile
- Specifications: Includes the features like fittings, attachments, reefs, and hardware.
- Style: The material that is used to make the genoa.
Measured by its luff perpendicular, the genoa can overlap between 98% and 155% of the mainsail. The larger the size, the better the lift to drag ratio, but it can also be a hindrance if the genoa gets tangled with the mast or shrouds.
Sailing upwind in heavier winds, the genoa is perfect to get your boat moving. The larger the genoa, the better the driving force when sailing upwind. In general, the genoa handles best when it is less than 130% because the overlapping headsails are just not needed for full power.
Finding the Overall Power with the Correct Sail
The first step in sailing with just the genoa is to determine your heel degrees. If your heel is more than 25%, you will need a smaller genoa. Narrow and long vessels can use more heel than this, but most modern boats have to be sailed a lot flatter.
Keep a record of the headsails that you use with all types of wind velocities and note the performance of your boat. After doing this for a while, you will have a nice chart to help you determine what you need as far as your genoa is concerned.
Another important aspect is the balance of the helm. With excess helm, you will want a smaller genoa because it reduces windward helm by decreasing the angle of the heel as well as removing the sail area from the back of your genoa. This permits you to open the main’s leech
All headsails, including the genoa, have a maximum wind velocity. This number will be printed on the genoa clew so you can change before you pass that limit. Also, if you are able to flog the main while maintaining the same speed, it is time for you to power down.
Setting the Best Genoa Efficiency with the Lead Angle
One way to get the best efficiency from the genoa is by using a narrow sheeting angle. This turns the sail forces to the side, which cuts down on the drive and increases the heel while letting you point higher. This will make the genoa more efficient, but the sail is also an important aspect.
According to David Dellenbaugh, champion helmsman and instructor, you need to sheet inboard in these conditions:
- Your vessel is efficient underwater
- You would rather point than foot
- If you are an experienced helmsman
- When you have flat water
- During times of medium air
A wider sheet angle is best for other conditions such as:
- Very strong or very light wind
- You want to foot instead of point
- You are inexperienced
- The boat is not efficient underwater
- The water is choppy
- Your genoa is at maximum range
Basically, you should sheet outboard when you need to play it safe and sheet inboard when all conditions are ideal.
The Best Genoa Trimming Procedure
Trimming the genoa is like trimming the mainsail. There is a step-by-step approach that you need to take. This helps to make sure you cover all the variables and keep fast shapes. The main steps include:
- Setting the draft position with halyard tension
- Setting the twist and depth with the fore and aft lead position
- Setting the twist and depth with sheet tension
- Finding the efficiency with the lead angle
- Determining the overall power by choosing the right genoa
Adjust Twist and Depth with Sheet Tension
The main job of the genoa trimmer is to keep the best sail shape as velocity changes. Sheet tension must be continually adjusted as needed to keep the same general trim. Easing the sheet for big lifts and waves and trimming for headers or flat water is also essential when sailing
with a genoa.
You will need to keep trimming the sheet when you are sailing with just the genoa to decrease depth, reduce twist, and narrow the sheeting angle. With these changes, you are able to point higher. But easing the sheet gives you more speed while giving you less ability to point.
If you are thinking of taking a voyage offshore, it is best to test how well the boat is handling with just the genoa beforehand. Take your vessel out for a while to find out the trouble spots and
what works and does not work for your ship. Because all boats are different, you have to test it before embarking on a major trip.
Moving the Genoa Positions
Use the genoa lead position to affect foot depth on the mainsail. If you want to add more depth, move your lead forward to shorten the clew to tack distance and move the sail away from the chain plates.
If you are experiencing choppy water and light air, you will have to use a deep sail. Ease the masthead rig tension to sag the headstay by easing off the backstay tension. This adjusts the twist and depth by moving the luff closer to the leech.
You will notice the added depth in the sail where you have a large sag compared to the chord length. Sag also adds depth to the front of the sail with a rounder and more lenient shape. Keep the backstay tension at about 25% during light air, but if the luff curls and snaps, it is too loose.
The Bottom Line of Sailing with Just the Genoa
There are some main questions to ask yourself before thinking about sailing with just the genoa. These include:
- What kind of boat and rig do you have?
- Do you often sail windward-leeward courses?
- Are you worried about performance in racing?
- Will you be sailing in heavy chop often?
- How consistent is the chop and wind speed?
- What wind speed ranges do you usually reach?
Most vessels will sail just fine with just the genoa in average wind with enough wind to keep you heeled at five to 10 degrees. In fact, it is even more efficient because the mainsail can affect the airflow with luff and mast. What matters the most includes:
- The size of your vessel
- The wind speed
- The choppiness of the water
- Whether you are racing or just cruising
- How experienced you are in sailing
Always be prepared for anything when taking your boat out for a sail and make sure you have emergency equipment and life jackets on board. No matter whether you are sailing with just the genoa or using the mainsail, it always pays to be safe.